What follows is the most comprehensive bibliography available on savant syndrome and autistic savants to date. Entries are categorized into what should be useful subgroups. References are listed in approximate chronological order.

Early Descriptions

Down JL. On Some of the Mental Affections of Childhood and Youth. London: Churchill, 1887. (This is Down’s original description where he named the condition Idiot Savant.)

Tredgold AF Mental Deficiency. New York: William Wood, 1914. (In this textbook Tredgold devotes an entire chapter in the Appendix to a detailed, classic description of the cases reported in the literature, or to him personally, from Down’s original description to 1914.)

Sequin E. Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological Method. New York: Kelley, 1971. Originally published in 1866, Binet A. Psychologie des Grands Calculateurs et Joueurs d’ecgecs Hachette, Paris, 1894. (Describes two cases of non-handicapped lightning and calendar calculators.)

Ireland WW. The Mental Affections of Children. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., 1900.

Witzmann A. Remarkable powers of memory manifested in an idiot. Lancet; pp 16-41, June 5, 1909.

Sano F. James Henry Pullen, the Genius of Earlswood. Journal of Mental Science; 64:251-67, 1918.

Holliday T. Account of Jedediah Buxton. Gentlemen’s Magazine; 21:347-49, published in 1751.

Foerstl J. Early interest in the idiot savant. American Journal of Psychiatry; 146:566 1989.

Review Articles

Hill AL. Savants: mentally retarded individuals with special skills. In N. Ellis (Ed.) International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 9:277-298, New York Academic Press, 1978.

Rimland B. Savant capabilities of autistic children and their cognitive implications. In G. Serban (Ed.) Cognitive Defects in the Development of Mental Illness (pp 43-65) New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1978.

Rimland B. Inside the mind of the autistic savant. Psychology Today; 12:68-80, 1978.

Treffert DA. The idiot savant: a review of the syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry; 145:563-572, 1988.

Nettlebeck T and Young R. Savant Syndrome. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 22:137-173, 1999.

Miller LK. The Savant Syndrome: Intellectual impairment and exceptional skill. Psychological Bulletin; 125:(1):31-46, 1999.

 Treffert DA. The Savant Syndrome in Autism. Autism: Clinical and Research Issues (Eds) Accardo, P., Magnusen, C. and Capute, A. Baltimore, York Press, 2000.


Selfe L. Nadia: A Case of Extraordinary Drawing Ability in an Autistic Child. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Monty S. May’s Boy: An Incredible Story of Love. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1981. (The Leslie Lemke story.)

Wiltshire S. Drawings. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1987.

Wiltshire S. Floating Cities. New York: Summit Books, 1991.

Miller L. Musical Savants: Exceptional Skill in the Mentally Retarded. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989.

Walker D. Journey to a Far County: The Savants and Me. Bryn Mawr, PA:, 1999. (The story of Hi Hopes University.)

Cameron L. The Music of Light: The Extraordinary Story of Hikari and Kenzaburo Oe. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Treffert DA. Extraordinary People: Understanding ‘idiot savants’ New York: Harper & Row, 1989. (Published in 1989 in hardcover by Bantam Press, London, and by Ballantine, New York in paperback as Extraordinary People: Understanding Savant Syndrome. The book was reissued with an epilogue update by, Omaha, 2000.)

Treffert, DA. Islands of genius: The bountiful mind of the autistic, acquired, and sudden savant. London: J. Kingsley, 2010. 

Musical Savants

Sequin E (A-3 above) A description of Thomas Greene Bethune’s (Blind Tom) prodigious musical ability during the Nineteenth Century (1850-1908).

Minogue, BM. A case of secondary mental deficiency with musical talent. Journal of Applied Psychology. 7:349-57, 1923.

Revesz, G. The Psychology of a Musical Prodigy London, Kegan Paul, Trench, 1925.

Owens, WA and Grimm, W. A note regarding exceptional musical ability in a low grade imbecile. Educational Psychology 32:636-37 1941.

Rothstein, HJ. A study of aments with special abilities Unpublished masters thesis Columbia University, 1942.

Scheerer, M, Rothman, E and Goldstein, K. A case of “idiot savant”: an experimental study of personality organization. Psychology Monograph 58:1-63, 1945.

Anastasi, A and Levee, R. Intellectual defect and musical talent: a case report American Journal of Mental Deficiency 64:695-703, 1960.

Viscott, DS. A musical idiot savant:a psychodynamic study, and some speculations on the creative process Psychiatry 33(4):494-515, 1969.

Sloboda, JA. and Hermelin, B and O’Connor, N. An exceptional musical memory. Music Perception 3:155, 1985.

Miller, L. Determinants of melody span in a developmentally disabled musical savant. Psychology of Music 15:76-89, 1987.

Miller, L. Developmentally delayed musical savant’s sensitivity to tonal structure American Journal of Mental Deficiency 5:467-471, 1987.

Hermelin, B, O’Connor, N and Lee, S Musical inventiveness of five idiot savant savants Psychological Medicine 17:685-94, 1987.

Stevens, D and Moffitt, T. Neuropsychological profile of an Asperger’s syndrome case with exceptional calculating ability. Clinical Neuropsychologist 2 (3):228-238, 1988.

Charness, N., Clifton, J. and MacDonald, L Case study of a musical “mono-savant”: A cognitive-psychological focus (Eds.) Obler and Fine “The Exceptional Brain” Neuropsychology of Talent and Special Abilities pp.474-492 New York Guildford 1988.

Hermelin, B. O’Connor N. and Treffert, D Intelligence and musical improvisation Psychological Medicine 19:447-457, 1989 Sears, A & Boone, J.W. (Blind), Pianist-composer-merit, not sympathy wins Black Music Research Journal 9(2):225-247, 1989.

Hermelin, B., O’Connor, N., Lee.S and Treffert, D. Intelligence and musical improvisation. Psychological Medicine 19(2):447-457, 1989.

Sloboda, J. Musical Expertise in Toward a general theory of expertise: prospects and limits. (Eds.) Anders, K and Smith, J et al New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Sacks, O. Musical Ability Science 268:(5211) May, 1995, 621.

Sacks, O. “Musical ability”:Comment & Frey, H “Musical ability”Comment Science 269(5230):1498, 1995.

Young RL. and Nettelbeck, T The abilities of a musical savant and his family Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 25:23-48, 1995.

Heaton, P., Hermelin, B. and Pring, L. Autism and pitch processing: a precursor for savant musical ability Music Perception 15(3):291-305, 1998.

Heaton, P, Pring, L. and Hermelin, B A pseudo-savant: A case of exceptional musical splinter skills Neurocase:Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry & Behavioral Neurology 5(6):503-509, 1999.

Mathematical Savants–Lightning Calculating and Calendar Calculating

The Calculating Twins
Horwitz, WA, Kestenbaum, C. Person E et al Identical twin-idiot savants — calendar calculators. Am. J. Psychiatry 121:1075-79, 1965.

Hamblin, DJ. They are idiot savants–wizards of the calendar. LIFE 60:106-8 3/18/66.

Horwitz, WA, Deming WE, and Winter, RF. A further account of the idiot savants: experts with the calendar Am. J. Psychiatry. 126:160-63, 1969.

Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. New York, Perennial Library, 1985.

Sacks, O. The Twins New York Review of Books 32:16-20, 1987.

Other Mathematical, Calendar and Lightning Calculating Savants

Byrd, HA. A case of phenomenal memorizing in a feeble-minded Negro. J. Applied Psychology 4:202-6, 1920

Heuyer, G. and Badonnel, M. A feeble-minded calendar calculator. (Non-English) 23:610-614, 1928.

Lafora, G. Psychological study of a feeble-minded calendar calculator. (Non-English) Archivos de Neurobilogia 14:45-70, 1934.

Lafora, G. Psychological study of a mentally defective calendar calculator. (Non-English) Encephale 30:309-337, 1935.

Fauville, A. A feeble-minded calendar prodigy. Revue Belge de Pedigogie 17:338-44, 1936.

Brill, A. Some peculiar manifestations of memory with special reference to lightning calculators J.. Nerv. Ment. Dis 92:709-726, 1940.

Roberts, A. Case history of a so-called idiot-savant. J. Genet. Psychology 66:259-65, 1945

Steinkopff, W. Extraordinary calculating capacity of an imbecile patient: report on follow-up and autopsy. Psychiatrie, Neurologie and Medizinische Psychologie 25:107-116, 1973

Hill, AL. An investigation of calendar calculating by an idiot savant. Am. J Psychiatry 132:557-60, 1975.

Critchley, M. The Divine Banquet of the Brain. New York, Raven Press, 1979.

O’Connor, N and Hermelin, B. Idiot savant calendrical calculators: Math or memory? Psychological Medicine 14(4):801-806, 1984

Steel, J., Gorman, R., and Flexman, J. Neuropsychiatric testing in an autistic mathematical idiot-savant:evidence for nonverbal abstract capacity. J. of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23(6):704-707, 1984

Rubin, E.J. and Monaghan, S. Calendar calculation in a multiple-handicapped blind person. Am. J. Ment. Def 70:478-85, 1985

Smith, J. and Howe, M. An investigation of calendar-calculating skills in an “idiot-savant”. International J. of Rehabilitation Research 8(1):a77-79, 1985

Hermelin, B. and O’Connor, N. Idiot savant calendrical calculators: rules and regularities. Psychological Medicine 16(4):885-893, 1986

Howe, M. and Smith, J. Calendar calculating in ‘idiot savants’:How do they do it? British Journal of Psychology 79(3):371-386, 1988

Hurst, L. and Mulhall, D. Another calendar savant. British J. Psychiatry 152:274-77 1988.

Fauvel, J and Gerdes, P. African slave and calculating prodigy — Bicentennary of the death of Thomas Fuller. Hist. Math 17(2):141-151, 1990.

Ho, E., Tsang, A. and Ho, D. An investigation of the calendar calculating ability of a Chinese calendar savant. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 21:(3) 315-317 1991.

Ohtsuka, A., Miyasaka, Y. and Kamizono, S. The calendar calculating process: “Idiot savant” calendar calculators [Japanese] Japanese J. of Special Education 29:13-22, 1991.

Dorman, C. Exceptional Calendar calculation ability after early left hemispherectomy. Brain and Cognition 15:26-36, 1991

O’Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. Do young calendrical calculators improve with age? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 33(5):907-912, 1992

Moriarty, J., Ring, H. and Robertson, M. An idiot savant calendrical calculator with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Implications for an understanding of the savant syndrome. Psychological Medicine 23(4):1019-1021, 1993

Nelson, E. and Pribor, EA. calendar savant with autism and Tourette syndrome: Response to treatment aand thoughts on the interrelationships of these conditions. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 5(2):135-140, 1993

Young, R. and Nettelback, T. The “intelligence” of calendrical calculators. American Journal on Mental Retardation 99(2):186-200, 1994

Spitz, H. Calendar calculating idiots savants and the smart unconscious. New Ideas in Psychology 13:167-182, 1995

Kelly, S, Macaruso, P. and Sokol, S. Mental calculation in an autistic savant: A case study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 19(2):172-184, 1997

Anderson, M., O’Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. A specific calculating ability. Intelligence 26(4):383-403, 1998

Fitzgerald, M. Did ‘the man who loved only numbers’, Paul Erdos, have Asperger Syndrome? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 53(6):465-466, 1999

Heavey, L., Pring.L. and Hermelin, B. A date to remember: The nature of memory in savant calendrical calculators. Psychological Medicine 29(1):145-160, 1999

Snyder, A and Mitchell, D. Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing? The Minds’ secret arithmetic Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences 266(1419):587-592, 1999

Damarin, S. The mathematically able as a marked category. Gender Educ 12(1):69-85 2000

Artistic Savants

Shikiba, R., ed. Works of Kiyoshu Yamishita Tokyo, Nihon burai burat, Bungei Shunju Shinsha, 1957.

Morishima, A. Another Van Gogh of Japan: the superior work of a retarded boy. Exceptional Children 31:225-232, 1974

Morishima, A . His spirit raises the ante for retardates. Psychology Today 9(1):72-73, 1975

Morishima, A and Brown, L. An idiot savant case report:a retrospective view. Mental Retardation 14(4):46-47, 1976

Morishima, A and Brown, L. A case report on the artistic talent of an autistic idiot savant. Mental Retardation 15(2):33-36, 1977

Becker, L. With Eyes Wide Open (Documentary film–Richard Wawro) Austin, Texas Creative Learning Environments, 1980.

Blank, J. I can see feeling good (Richard Wawro) Reader’s Digest 127(762):98-104, 1985

O’Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. Visual and graphic abilities in the idiot savant artist Psychological Medicine 17(1):71-90, 1987

O’Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. Visual memory and motor programmes:their use by idiot-savant artists and controls. British J. Psychiatry 78(3):307-323 1987.

O’Connor, N and Hermelin, B. The recognition failure and graphic success of idiot-savant artists. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disorders. 31(2)203-215 1990

Hermelin, B and O’Connor, N. Art and accuracy:the drawing ability of idiot-savants. J. of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 31(2):217-228, 1990

Pring, L. and Hermelin, B. Bottle, tulip and wineglass:Semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 34(8):1365-1385, 1993.

Hermelin, B., Pring, L. and Heavey Visual and motor functions in graphically gifted savants. Psychological Medicine 24(3):673-680, 1994.

Pring, L., Hermelin, B. and Heavey, L. Savants, segments, art and autism Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 36(6):1065-1076, 1995

Mottron, L and Belleville, S A study of perceptual analysis in a high-level autistic subject with exceptional graphic abilities Brain and Cognition 23(2):279-309, 1993

Mottron, L and Belleville, S. Perspective production in a savant artistic draughtsman Psychological Medicine 25(3)639-648, 1996

Milbrath, C and Siegel, B Perspective taking in the drawings of a talented autistic child Visual Arts Research 22(2):56-75, 1996

Hermelin, B and Pring, L. The pictorial context dependency of savant artists:a research note Perceptual and Motor Skills 87(3 Pt.1):995-1001, 1998

Cox, M and Eames, K. Contrasting styles of drawing in gifted individuals with autism Autism 3(4):397-409, 1999

Hermelin, B., Pring, L, Buhler, M. Wolff. S and Heaton, P: A visually impaired savant artist:Interacting preceptual and memory representations Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 40(7):1129-1139, 1999

Ramachandran, V and Hirstein, W The science of Art:a neurological theory of aesthetic experience Journal of Consciousness Studies 6(6-7):15-51, 1999

Hou, C, Miller, B et al Artistic Savants Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology & Behavioral Neurology 13(1):29-38 2000

Autism, Early Infantile Autism, Autistic Disorder

Kanner, L, Early Infantile Autism Journal of Pediatrics 25:200-17, 1943

Rimland, B Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its Implications for a neural theory of Behavior New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964

Wing, J.K. Early Childhood Autism: Clinical, Educational and Social Aspects New York, Pergamon Press, 1966

Treffert, D.A. The epidemiology of infantile autism Arch. Gen Psychiat 22:431-38, 1970

Malkoff, K. A neuropsychological investigation of an “autistic savant” process in an autistic population Dissertation Abstracts International 43(10A), April 1983, 3272

Frith, U Autism: Explaining the Enigma London:Blackwell 1989

Cesaroni, L. and Garber, M Exploring the experience of autism through firsthand accounts Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 21(3):303-313, 1991

Feldman, D. The theory of co-incidence:How giftedness develops in extreme alnd less extreme cases (Ed) Moenks, Peters et al Talent for the future:Social and personality development of gifted children: Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children Assen, Netherlands:Van Gorcum & Co., 1992

Ratey, J, Grandin, T and Miller, A. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: The story of Temple Grandin, PhD. Psychiatry:Interpersonal and Biological Processes 55(4):382-391, 1992

Wehmeyer, M Developmental and psychological aspects of savant syndrome International Journal of Disability, Development & Education 39(2), 1992

Kehrer, H Savant capabilities in autistic persons Acta Paedopsychiatrica 55(3):151-155,1992 12. Bujas-Petkovic, Z. Special talents of autistic children (autistic savant) and their mental functions [Serbo-Croatian (Roman)] Lijecnicki Vjesnik 116:(1-2):26-29, 1994

Happe, F Understanding assets and deficits in autism:why success is more interesting than failure Psychologist 12(11):540-546, 1999

Treffert, D. The Savant Syndrome in Autism in Autism: Clinical and Research Issues (Eds.) Accardo, P., Magnusen, C. and Capute, A. Baltimore, York Press, 2000

Mechanical and Spatial Skill Savants

Hoffman, E and Reeves, R. An idiot savant with unusual mechanical ability. American Journal of Psychiatry 136:713-714, 1979

Brink, T. Idiot savant with unusual mechanical ability:an organic explanation American Journal of Psychiatry 137:250-251, 1980

Memory and Savants

Byrd, H A case of phenomenal memorizing in a feeble-minded Negro J. Applied Psychology 4:202-206, 1920

Jones, H Phenomenal memorizing as a special ability J. Applied Psychology 10:367-376,1926

Jaensch, E and Mehmel, H Feats of memory of a feeble-minded eidetic man (Non-English) Neurologische Wochenschrift 30:101-103, 1928

White, P The structured representation of information in long-term memory:a possible explanation for the accomplishments of ‘idiot savants’ New Ideas in Psychology 6:3-14, 1988

O’Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. The memory structure of autistic idiot-savant mnemonists British Journal of Psychology 80(1):97-111 1989

Mottron, L, Belleville, S., Stip, E. and Morasse, K Atypical memory performance in an autistic savant Memory 6(6):593-607, 1998

Incidence of Savant Syndrome

Hill, A.L. Idiot Savants:rate of incidence Percept. Motor Skills 44:161-62, 1977

Rimland, B Savant characteristics of autistic children and their cognitivre implications in Cognitive Defect in the Development of Mental Illness (ed.)Serban G New York Brunner/Mazel, 1978

Rimland, G and Fein, D Special talents of autistic savants in The Exceptional Brain: Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities (Eds.) Obler, L and Fein, D New York, Guilford Press, 1988

Teaching the Savant and Other Gifted Children with Disabilities

Philliips, A. Talented Imbeciles Psychological Clinics 18:246-255, 1930

Donnelly, J and Altman, R The autistic savant:recognizing and serving the gifted student with autism Roeper Review 16(4):252-256, 1994

Cheatham, S. et al Savant Syndrome:case studies, hypotheses and implications for special education Education & Training in Mental Retardation 30(3):243-253, 1995

Miscellaneous – Inheritence

Rife, D.C. and Snyder, L.H. Studies in human inheritence VI: a genetic refutation of the principles of “behavioristic” psychology Hum. Biol 3:547-59, 1931

Bellows, R. The psycho-genetic relationship Human Biology 4:280-285, 1932

Rovet, J et al Savant characteristics in a child with developmental delay and deletion in the short arm of chromosome 20 Developmental Med and Child Neurology 37(7), 637-644, 1995

Nelson, E No evidence of partial trisomy 16p in an autistic calendar savant with Tourette syndrome American J. of Medical Genetics 74(4):450, 1997

Language (polyglot) Savants & Hyperlexia

Forrest, D New words and neologisms: with a thesaurus of coinages by a schizophrenic savant Psychiatry 33(4):44-73, 1969

Goldberg, R On hermetic reading abilities Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 17(1):29-44, 1987

Conners, F.A. Special abilities of idiots savants, hyperlexic children, and phenomenal memorizers:Implications for intelligence theory Detterman (Ed.), et al Is Mind modular or Unitary:Current Topics in Human Intelligence Vol.2, pp 187-227 Norwood NJ Ablex Publishing Corp, 1992

Patti, P and Lupinetti, L. Brief report: Implications of hyperlexia in an autistic savant Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 23(2):397-405 1993

O’Connor, N., Smith, N, Frith, C and Tsimpli, I. Neuropsychology and linguistic talent Journal of Neuroliguistics 8(2):95-107, 1994

O’Connor, N and Hermelin, B. Two autistic savant readers Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 24(4):5-1-515, 1994

Tsimpli, I and Smith, N Modules and quasi-modules: Language the theory of mind in a polyglot savant Learning & Individual Differences 10(3):193-215, 1998

General References, Miscellaneous

Barr, M Some notes on echolalia, with the report of an extraordinary case Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 25:20-23, 1898

Downey, J A case of special ability with below average intelligence Journal of Applied Psychology 10:319-321, 1926

Gallis, P Les animaux savant-ils compter? Bulletin Societe Royale des Sciences di Liege 31:4, 1932

Scheereeer, M., Rothman, E. and Goldstein, K. A case of “idiot savant”:an experimental study of personality organization Psychological Monographs 58(4):1-63, 1945

Roberts, A. Case history of a so-called idiot-savant J. Genetic Psychology 66:259-265, 1945

Brain, W. Some reflections on genius Eugenics Review 40:12-20, 1948

Podolsky, E. Encyclopedia of Aberrations, New York, Citadel Press, 1953

Goldstein, K Abnormal mental conditions in infancy J. of Nervous and Mental Disease 128:538o-557, 1959

Lindsley, O. Can deficiency produce specific superiority. The challenge of the idiot savant Exceptional Children 31(5):225-232, 1965

Hoffman, E. The idiot savant:A case report and a review of explanations. Mental Retardation 9(4):18-21, 1971

 LaFontaine, L. Divergent abilities in the idiot savant. Dissertation Abstracts International 35(3-A), September 1974, 1532-1533

Goldensen, R. Mysteries of the Mind New York, Harper & Row, 1976

Abhyankar, R., Thatte, S & Doongaji, D. Idiot Savant J. Postgraduate Medicine 27(1):44-47,1981

Mai, F. Pierre Briquet:19th Century savant with 20th Century ideas Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28(6):416-421, 1983

Hermelin, B. and O’Connor, N. The idiot savant:Flawed genius or clever Hans? Psychological Medicine 13(3):479-481, 1983

Narasimhan, R. Autobiography of a Savant Indian Literature 27(4(102)):103-113 1984

Lewis, M Gifted or dysfunctional:the child savant Pediatric Annals 14(10):733-740, 1985

Pambuccian, V Elias Canetti’s “Blinding”:Portrayal of a necrophile savant [German] Psyche.:Zeitschrift Fuer Psychoanalyse und Ihre Anwendungen 41(10):915-928, 1987

Fedorko, S. Self-directed selection:In search of Homo savant Dissertation Abstracts International 47(9-B), 3989, 1987

Zhang, M. [A preliminary study of multiple brain evoked potentials in an idiot savant] {Chinese) Chung-Hua Shen Ching Ching Shen Ko Tsa Chih (Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiaty 21(2):65-67, 126, 1988

O’Connor, N and Hermelin, B. Low intelligence and special abilities Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 29(4):391-396, 1988

Goldsmith, L and Feldman, D Idiot savants–thinking about remembering:A response to White New Ideas in Psychology 6(1):15-23, 1988

O’Connor, N. The performance of the “idiot-savant”:implicit and explicit British Journal of Disorders of Communication 24:(1):1-20, 1989

McMullen, T. The savant syndrome and extrasensory perception Psychological Reports 69(3):1004-1006, 1991

O’Connor, N and Hermelin B. Talents and preoccupations in idiot-savants Psychological Medicine 21(4):959-964, 1991

Norris, D How to build a connectionist theory Cognition 35(3):277-291, 1990

Casey, B., Gordon, C., Mannheim, G and Rumsey J. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology 15(6)933-946, 1993

Barnes, R and Earnshaw, S. Problems with the savant syndrome:a brief case study Mental Handicap 23(3):124-126, 1995

 Berkson,G., Gutermuth, L and Baranek, G Relative prevalence and relations among stereotyped and similar behaviors Am. J. on Mental Retardation 100(2):137-145, 1995

Dowker, A, Hermelin, B. and Pring, L. A savant poet Psychological Med 26(5)913-924, 1996

Vandervert, L From idiots savants to Albert Einstein:a brain-algorithmic explanation of savant and everyday performance: Comment New Ideas in Psychology 14(1):81-92, 1996

SussBurghart, H ‘Ideot savant’ without autism:the development of a mentally retarded child with a special talent from 8 month to 8 years of life Verhaltenstherapie 6:234-242, 1996

Pring, L, Hermelin, F. Buhler, M and Walker, I. Native savant talent and acquired skill Autism 1(2):199-214, 1997

Miller, L. Defining the savant syndrome J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 10(1)”73-85, 1998

Snyder, A Breaking mindset Mind Lang 13:1-10, 1998

Howe, M., Davidson, J. and Sloboda, J. Innate talents:reality or myth? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:399, 1998

Humphrey, N Cave art, autism and the evolution of the human mind Caaamb Aarchaelo Journal 8:165-191, 1998

Yewchuk, C. Savant syndrome:intutitive excellence amidst general deficit Developmental Disabilities Bulletin 27(1):58-76, 1999

Winner, E The origins and ends of giftedness American Psychologist 55:159-169, 2000

General References, Intelligence, Intelligence Testing

Manya, J The varieties of intelligence (Non-English) Criterion 9:5-40, 1933

Luszki, W. An idiot savant on the WAIS? Psychological Reports 19(2):603-609, 1966

Spitz, H and LaFontaine, L The digit span of idiot savants: American Journal of Mental Deficiency 77:757-759, 1973

Gladwin, T. Intellectual resources of the mentally retarded Mental Retardation 4(2):15-16 1966

O’Connor, N and Hermelin, B Low intelligence and special abilities Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 29(4):391-396, 1988

Feldman, D Child Prodigies: A distinctive form or giftedness Gifted Child Quarterly 37(4):188-193, 1993

Morelock, M and Feldman, D Prodigies and savants:what do they have to tell us about giftedness and human cognition in International Handbook of Research and Development of Giftedness and Talent (Eds.) Heller, Moenks & Franz Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1993

Nettlebeck, T. and Young, R. Intelligence and savant syndrome: is the whole greater than the sum of the fragments? Intelligence 22(1):49-67, 1996

Anderson, M Mental retardation, general intelligence and modularity: Learning and Individual Differences 10(3):193-215, 1998

Scheuffgen, K., Happe, E., Anderson, M. and Frith, U: High “intelligence”, low “IQ”? Speed of processing and measured IQ in children with autism Development and Psychopathology 12(1):Win 2000, 83-90 2000

Nettlebeck, T Savant Syndrome — Rhyme without reason in The Development of Intelligence: Studies in developmental psychology (ed.) Anderson, M Hove, England Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis, UK, pp 247-273, 1999

Addendum: Additional Older References & Newer, Recent References

Altshuler, K and Brebbia, R Sleep patterns and EEG recordings in twin idiot savants Diseases of the Nervous System 29:772-774,1968 also in Psychophysiology 5:244-245, 1968

Cain, A Special ‘isolated’ abilities in severely psychotic young children Psychiatry 32:137-149, 1969

LaFontaine, L and Benjamin, G. Idiot savants:another view Mental Retardation 9:41-42, 1971

Duckett, J. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior of idiots-savants American Journal of Mental Deficiency 82:308-311, 1977

Lester, David, Idiots Savants:a review Psychology 14(1):20-23, 1977

Palo, J and Kivalo, A Calendar calculator with progressive mental deficiency Acta Paedopsychiatrica 42(6):227-231, 1977

Duckett, J. Idiot savants: super specialization in mentally retarded persons Dissertation abstracts international 37(8-A):5032, 1977

Miller, B., Cummings, J., Mishkin, F et al Emergence of artistic talent in frontotemporal dementia Neurology:51:978-982, 1998

Miller, BL, Boone K, Cummings JL, Read SL, Mishkin F. Functional correlates of musical and visual ability in frontotemporal dementia British J. Psychiatry 176:458-463 2000

Morrell, T. L., Young, R.L. and Ridding, M.C. (2000) Investigation of latent savant skills using trancranial magnetic stimulation Unpublished Honours thesis, University of South Australia

Savant Syndrome FAQ and Profiles

View Savant Syndrome FAQs and read fascinating profiles of artistic savants.

Treffert Library

The Treffert Library features the life works of Dr. Treffert, helping to foster research and knowledge across the autism and savant syndrome spectrum and other forms of exceptional brain performance.